Additional Indications

The range of applications of confocal laser scanning microscopy is continually expanding.

  • For example, VivaScopes® provide a safe and pain free method to distinguish between two not easily differentiated forms of contact dermatitis (within the first days of the initial symptoms): irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Both are among the most frequent job-related diseases with skin involvement. It takes a correct diagnosis and a patch test to successfully determine and avoid the allergen in question [1,2].
  • Skin biopsy studies indicate that the density of the Meissner corpuscles (corpuscula tactus) of the finger pads is a suitable parameter to evaluate diabetic or idiopathic sensory neuropathy. Images produced by the VivaScope® technology have been used to determine the density of the Meissner corpuscles in vivo quickly and without pain [3].
  • The quick, pain-free, and as non-invasive as possible administration of drugs through skin absorption is of great medical interest. Microchannels across the stratum corneum and epidermis can now be generated with various means. VivaScope® laser scanning microscopy can be utilized to quantify in vitro the depth and profile of such channels [4].
  • When applying medical active substances such as salves, lotions, shampoos, etc., the VivaScope® method can help provide accurate information about penetration depth and distribution or diffusion of the relevant ingredients. This constitutes an important contribution to research and development [5,6].

[1] Astner S, Burnett N, Rius-Díaz F, Doukas AG, González S, Gonzalez E: "Irritant Contact Dermatitis Induced by a Common Household Irritant: A Noninvasive Evaluation of Ethnic Variability in Skin Response." J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006; 54(3): 458-65.
[2] Astner S, Gonzalez E, Cheung A, Rius-Diaz F, González S: "Pilot Study on the Sensitivity and Specificity of In Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in the Diagnosis of Allergic Contact Dermatitis." J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005; 53(6): 986- 92.
[3] Herrmann D, Boger JN, Jansen C, Alessi-Fox C: "In vivo confocal microscopy of Meissner corpuscles as a measure of sensory neuropathy." Neurology. 2007; 69: 2121-2127.
[4] Astner S, Gonzalez E, Cheung A, Rius-Diaz F, González S: "Transdermal Microconduits by Microscission for Drug Delivery and Sample Acquisition." BMC Med. 2004; 2: 12.
[5] Horn M, Koller S, Gerger A, Weger W, Kerl H, Smolle J: "Surgery guided by confocal laser scanning microscopy for foreign filler granulomas." Dermatol Surg. 2008; 34: 1245-1247.
[6] Yamashita T, Akita H, Astner S, Miyakawa M, Lerner EA, González S: "In vivo assessment of pigmentary and vascular compartments changes in UVA exposed skin by reflectance-mode confocal microscopy." Exp Dermatol. 2007; 16: 905-911.